Here are some links to articles on historical battles in the Quad Cities:
1780 Revolutionary War – Burning of Sauk-E-Nuk (free JStor account needed to read the whole thing). This was the westernmost battle of the Revolution; there’s a marker at the Watchtower Lodge, I think, at Blackhawk State Park.
1814 War of 1812 – Battle of the Rock Island Rapids. One of the westernmost battles of the War of 1812. Includes skirmishes on Credit Island and Campbell’s Island.
early 1830s Black Hawk War – Conflicts between US government and native American tribes. Abraham Lincoln, Zachary Taylor, and Jefferson Davis served in the conflict.
There wasn’t a Civil War battle in the area as far as I know, but 12,000 Confederate prisoners were held at Rock Island Prison on Arsenal Island — and 2,000 of them died there due to poor health conditions and the hard winters, compounded by severe rations imposed in 1864 to “punish” the Confederacy for poor conditions at Andersonville Prison. and are buried in the Confederate cemetery.